jump to navigation

Organisasi Industri [10] November 22, 2008

Posted by desrinda in Organisasi Industri.
trackback

Masih membahas tentang organization design. Bahannya dari Bab 5 buku teks (Organizational Theory, Design, and Change: Text and Cases, Gareth R. Jones, Prentice Hall, 2006), bertajuk Designing Organizational Structure: Authority and Control.

gareth

Struktur organisasi harus menunjukkan hirarki mengenai kewenangan yang dibuat untuk mengendalikan anggota-anggotanya. Dalam kaitan ini, diberlakukan teori X mengenai tipe kepemimpinan (direct supervision is important).

Authority means power in decision making, could be centralized (the authority to make important decisions is retained by managers at the top of the hirerarchy) or decentralized (the authority to make important decisions about organizational resources and to initiate new projects is delegated to managers at all levels in the hirerarchy).

*Manager adalah orang yang bertanggung jawab mengelola koordinasi dan motivasi.

Jika organisasi berkembang, maka bertambah juga jumlah anggota dalam organisasi dari segi jumlah dan spesialisasinya, dan bertambah juga tingkat-tingkat hirarkinya.

PROBLEM WITH TALL HIERARCHY
– Communication problems
– Motivation problems
– Bureaucratic costs (because managers cost money)
An organization with a flat structure will experience fewer communication, motivation, and cost problem than will a tall organization.

THE PARKINSON’S LAW PROBLEM
“Work expands as so to fill the time available.”

Semakin banyak tingkatan hirarki, maka semakin banyak manager yang tugas utamanya adalah memantau dan mengawasi pekerjaan manager bawahannya. Untuk itu, dibuatlah standardisasi kegiatan kerja.

Standardization reduces the need for managers and extra levels in the hierarchy because rules and standard operating procedures subtitute for direct supervision.

THE PRINCIPLES OF BUREAUCRACY (Max Weber)
1. A bureaucracy is founded on the concept of rational-legal authority. Kewenangan seseorang berdasarkan posisinya, bukan personal factors.
2. Organizational roles are held on the basis of technical competence, not because of social status, kinship, or heredity. Kenaikan posisi seseorang dalam hirarki organisasi harus berdasarkan kompetensi, bukan karena “dibeli” atau KKN dll.
3. A role’s task responsibility and decison-making authority and its relationship to other roles in the organization should be clearly specified. Hubungan koordinasi harus jelas untuk menghindarkan role conflict dan role ambiguity.
4. The organization of roles in a bureaucracy is such that each lower office in the hierarchy is under the control and supervision of a higher office.
5. Rules, standar operating procedures, and norms should be used to control the behaviour and the relationships among roles in an organization.

Comments»

No comments yet — be the first.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: