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Strategi Industri [2] September 12, 2009

Posted by desrinda in Strategi Industri.
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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS

Step 1. Environmental Scanning
Environmental scanning is the monitoring, evaluating, and disseminating of information from the external and internal environments to key people within the company. Details are available on: http://www.agecon.purdue.edu/extension/sbpcp/resources/exscan.pdf

Step 2. Strategy Formulation
Strategy formulation is the development of long-range plans for the effective management of environmental opportunities and threats, in light of company strengths and weaknesses (SWOT).

Step 3. Strategy Implementation
Strategy implementation is a process by which strategies and policies are put into action through the development of programs, budgets, and procedures.

Step 4. Evaluation & Control
“…A process in which corporate activities and performance results are monitored so that actual performance can be compared with desired performance.”

More details for step 2, 3, 4 above: http://www.agr.hr/cro/istrazivanja/projekti/ahead/doc/strategic_mgmt_4.pdf

VISION AND MISSION

Vision = a realistic, credible and attainable view of the future that grows out and improves on the present.

Mission answers the question:
-What is our reason for being in business?
-What do we provide for society?
-Who we are?
-What we do?
-Where we’re headed?

Good read: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ans440/Lectures/Vision%20Mission.pdf

Manajemen Keuangan Korporasi dan Perbankan [2] September 11, 2009

Posted by desrinda in Keuangan dan Perbankan.
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Second class in this term by Pak Bintang, still continued to explore basic terms in financial management.

In first years of company’s operation, there would be “tax holiday” when there could be no tax obligation to be paid based on local government’s policy.

Balance Sheet Structure

Analisa Multivariat [2] September 11, 2009

Posted by desrinda in Analisa Multivariat.
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Types of multivariate techniques:
1. Dependence Techniques
2. Interdependence Techniques

DEPENDENCE TECHNIQUES
= a variable or set of variables is identified as the dependent variable to be predicted or explained by other variables known as independent variables
• Multiple Regression
• Multiple Discriminant Analysis
• Logit/Logistic Regression
• Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Covariance
• Conjoint Analysis
• Canonical Correlation
• Structural Equations Modeling (SEM)

INTERDEPENDENCE TECHNIQUES
= involve the simultaneous analysis of all variables in the set, without distinction between dependent variables and independent variables
• Principal Components and Common Factor Analysis
• Cluster Analysis
• Multidimensional Scaling (perceptual mapping)
• Correspondence Analysis

SELECTING A MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUE
1. What type of relationship is being examined – dependence or interdependence?
2. Dependence relationship: How many variables are being predicted?
3. Interdependence relationship: Are you examining relationships between variables, respondents, or objects?

Bingung… September 6, 2009

Posted by desrinda in Seminar/Riset/Thesis.
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confused

Duh, kuliah sudah memasuki semester ketiga, masa terakhir untuk belajar bersama-sama di kelas. Saatnya untuk mempelajari metodologi penelitian dan mempersiapkan seminar (forum untuk memaparkan Bab I dari thesis masing-masing). Semester berikutnya, Januari-Juni 2010 yang akan datang, tidak ada lagi jadwal kuliah dan harus sepenuhnya mandiri mengerjakan thesis.

Bingung…topiknya apa ya?

Sesungguhnya saya mengambil pasca sarjana di Teknik Industri ini karena hanya program studi ini satu-satunya yang mengajarkan Project Management di UI. Dulunya, saya sangat tertarik mendalami pengetahuan mengenai manajemen proyek karena kebetulan sedang menjadi karyawan di perusahaan yang core business-nya project-based. Karena itu, di awal kuliah tahun lalu, saya sudah berencana mengambil topik mengenai optimasi eksekusi proyek.

Belakangan, saya belajar bahwa di banyak perusahaan, termasuk di tempat saya bekerja saat ini, seringkali terjadi bahwa Knowledge Management tidak dikelola dengan baik (jika tidak ingin ditulis sebagai “terabaikan”). People tend to hold their knowledge because it’s “knowledge is power” for them. Menarik juga kalau diangkat menjadi thesis mengenai bagaimana metode memulai dan menjalankan “bank ilmu”, khan?

Sempat juga terlintas di benak saya mengenai pentingnya pemahaman mengenai Service Excellence bagi suatu organisasi agar dapat kompetitif di pasar dunia. Ide saya dulu, Marketing Strategy through Six Sigma Application sehingga terintegrasilah ilmu pemasaran dengan TQM (“quality is free“) karena tidak ada alasan bahwa “meningkatkan kualitas akan menyebabkan naiknya COGS (cost of goods sold) sehingga organisasi menjadi sulit berkompetisi”.

Namun krisis moneter global 2008-2009 ini menyadarkan banyak orang bahwa tidak ada perusahaan yang dapat dipastikan bertahan. Sekelas General Motors pun nyaris bangkrut. Tapi Apple bertahan. Jadinya menarik buat saya untuk meneliti: Apakah faktor yang menyebabkan perusahaan rokok Djarum tetap berdiri namun Djambu Bol bangkrut?

Beberapa hari lalu, saya membaca kutipan: “This is the Law of the Yukon, that only the Strong shall thrive; That surely the Weak shall perish, and only the Fit survive.” (Robert Service)

Apakah definisi dari “fit organization“? That’s it…ini bisa juga dijadikan topik penelitian saya untuk dijadikan thesis! Tetapi setelah didiskusikan dengan Pak Amar, sepertinya kekhususan Industrial Management tersebut akan terlalu sederhana…masa’ cuma gini doang?

Jadi, saya masih bingung. Kayaknya sih balik ke Knowledge Management aja kali ya…

Manajemen Keuangan Korporasi dan Perbankan [1] September 5, 2009

Posted by desrinda in Keuangan dan Perbankan.
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DSC00075

Asyik sekali mendengarkan kuliah kali ini dari Pak Bintang yang sangat interaktif. Berlatar belakang pendidikan Teknik Mesin (S1), Teknik Industri (S2), dan Ekonomi (S3), beliau mengajar kami mengenai pengelolaan keuangan perusahaan (termasuk BUMN) dari prespektif yang berbeda dari yang diketahui dari media massa umumnya. Saking asyiknya, tak terasa berlangsung jauh melewati jadwal yang seharusnya, molor menjadi 12:30 – 15:10 WIB.

Text book: Any books titled with Manajemen Keuangan, Financial Management, Financial Management of Banks.
Recommended: Brigham, Eugene F, Financial Management: Theory and Practice, Hindsdale: Dryden Press, 1976.

SILABUS
1. Peranan Manajemen Keuangan
2. Neraca Keuangan
3. Perbandingan Keuangan
4. Penanaman dan Perencanaan Investasi
5. Antara Saham dan Obligasi
6. Keuangan Korporasi
7. Biaya Modal
8. Model-Model Investasi
9. Analisa Portofolio
10.Penggabungan Bisnis
11.Keuangan Perbankan
12.Keuangan Multinasional

Ujian 3x: UTS (topik 1-7), UAS (komprehensif), dan satu kali ujian sebelum UAS. Nilai diambil dari rata-rata nilai dari 2x ujian.

Topik 4-8 berkaitan dengan Ekonomi Teknik.

Proses manajemen keuangan juga menerapkan tahapan seperti proses yang lain, yaitu: PLANNING – ORGANIZING – EXECUTING – CONTROLLING – EVALUATION.

Manajer keuangan (atau financial controller) berperan memperhitungkan agar perusahaan semakin berkembang, menaikkan harga saham, membuat laporan keuangan bagi para pemegang saham dan komisaris.

NERACA KEUANGAN
Every corporation must have below financial sheets:
1. Profit and loss statement (income statement, neraca laba rugi) => FLOW CONCEPT
2. Balance sheet (assets and claim of asset, neraca aktiva/pasiva, neraca kekayaan/kewajiban) => STOCK CONCEPT
3. Sources and uses of funds statement (neraca sumber dan penggunaan dana) => FLOW CONCEPT
4. Cash flow statement => FLOW CONCEPT
5. Statement of retained earnings => FLOW CONCEPT
* uses = application
** profit and loss statement, balance sheet, sources and uses of fund statement must be done simultaneously.

FLOW CONCEPT = stated for certain period (mostly annual).
STOCK CONCEPT = stated for certain time (e.g. as per December 31).

COST AND EXPENSES = overhead cost, including cost of good sold (COGS consists of labor and materials, depreciation, selling, general and adminsitrative, lease payment on office building etc).

ASSETS = land, building, machineries (there should be funds prepared to anticipate depreciation).

DEPRECIATION CONCEPTS
1. Dana harus disisihkan sewaktu-waktu untuk menggantikan asset yang rusak.
2. Setiap asset lama kelamaan akan aus.
3. Dibutuhkan dana untuk rekapitulasi.

Depreciation = decreased value of asset
Amortization = decreased value of debt
Methods: Straight line, etc.

SHARES
Initial offered price for share = face value or nominal value or par value.

Earning per Share (EPS) or Dividens per Share (DPS) = book value, it’s different from market value of each share.

Faktor produksi: LAND (paid by rent), LABOR (paid by salary), CAPITAL (paid by interest).

PAYABLE, FIRST MORTGAGE (dengan agunan), DEBENTURES (tanpa agunan) = hutang
RECEIVABLES = piutang
MARKETABLE SECURITIES = surat berharga, jika diperdagangkan disebut SBPU (Surat Berharga Pasar Uang)
COST OF DEPRECIATION = dihitung kumulatif, bertambah dari tahun ke tahun sejak tahun pertama
ADDITIONAL PAID IN CAPITAL = harga kelebihan penjualan saham dibandingkan dengan par value

Teknik Keputusan [1] September 5, 2009

Posted by desrinda in Teknik Keputusan.
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Tujuan kuliah: Mahasiswa mampu memformulasikan masalah dalam pengambilan keputusan.

1. Supplies methods for organizing decisions
2. Allow identification of important sources of uncertainty
3. Forces representation of certainty
4. Supplies framework for dealing with multiple objectives
5. Modelling and sensitivity analysis

Bu Isti menyampaikan bahwa penilaian akan berdasarkan bobot:
Problem set/quiz = 15%
Term paper = 25%
Midterm Exam = 30%
Final Exam = 30%

Text books:
Clemen, Robert T, Making Hard Decision, 2nd edition, Brooks/Cole Publising Company, 1996
Forman, Ernest H et al, Decision by Objectives: How to Convince Others that You are Right, World Scientific Publishing Company, 2001

EXECUTIVE DECISION MAKING
– Make meetings more effective
– Improve communication
– Achieve consensus
– Prioritize (evaluate alternatives, allocate resources)
– Deliver powerful presentations
– Justify/defend recommendations

Cognitive limitations: Short term memory and limited channel capacity.

*Common simplistic strategis for crucial decision? Relying on rule of thumbs might generally work out fairly well when making routine choices or dealing with minor relatively unimportant decisions.

CASE: Gypsy moth and the ODA, in the winter of 1985 (Lane County, West Oregon). Decision was hard because of the complexity, uncertainty key elementsmultiple objectives, different perspective, sensitivity/unstability.

LEAD TO BETTER DECISIONS
– Decisions are consistent
– No surprise due to thorough study of the problem
– Performance of decision making is better on average

A good decision will be looking back in the past, one can say that one would have made the same decision given the information available at the time of decision making.

Decision Analysis (DA) = Prescriptive approach as infromation source, should not replace the decision maker but support him/her. It does not only provide a solution, but also insight to situation, uncertainty, objectives, trade offs.

Statistics studies is needed to support subjective judgement for decision analysis.

Seminar dan Metodologi Penelitian September 5, 2009

Posted by desrinda in Seminar/Riset/Thesis.
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SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [1]
Metodologi Penelitian dan sistematika kuliah untuk mempersiapkan pembuatan thesis, oleh Ibu Isti – 4 September 2009 (18:30-19:30 WIB).

Mahasiswa magister diharapkan sudah mampu menerapkan riset dalam pembuatan thesis berdasarkan tujuan yang ingin dicapai. Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase or understanding the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested.

SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [2]
Pengenalan Teknik Industri dan berbagai topik thesis dari semester sebelumnya, oleh Pak Yuri – 4 September 2009 (19:30-20:00 WIB).

Perbedaan antara skripsi, thesis, disertasi:
– Skripsi = S1, berfokus pada aplikasi/implementasi atau problem solving.
– Thesis = S2, berfokus pada desain proses melalui penelitian maupun sintesa.
– Disertasi = S3, berfokus pada inovasi melalui advance research (novelty).

SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [3]
Topik TI yang berkaitan dengan Sistem Produksi/Manufaktur, oleh Pak Yadrifil – 5 September 2009 (8:00-9:00 WIB).

Some of interesting topics:
– Artificial Neural Network
– Genetic Algorithms
– Fuzzy Logic
– Synchronous Manufacturing (TOC)
– Branch Bonus Algorithms
– Fault Tree Analysis
– Knowledge Management
– Customer Relationship Management

Contoh: Efisiensi proses operasi, misalnya melalui FMEA dan lalu dicarikan solusinya dengan menerapkan fuzzy logic.

SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [4]
Topik TI yang berkaitan dengan Organisasi dan SDM (human capital), oleh Ibu Ana – 5 September 2009 (15:15-16:20 WIB).

Beliau memulai kuliah dengan menyampaikan bahwa pembuatan thesis harus dimulai dengan penentuan hipotesa. Penyelesaiannya harus dibedakan dengan Program Studi Manajemen, mesti menggunakan model matematis dan hasil akhirnya berupa desain.

Biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk menambah human capital terkadang dianggap pengeluaran (cost) bukannya investasi. Sumber daya manusia bukan dianggap aset perusahaan yang memerlukan biaya pemeliharaan atau penyusutan. Namun demikian, dapat dilakukan perhitungan dengan pemodelan.

Setelah semua kuliah mengenai seminar dan metodologi penelitian ini disampaikan oleh seluruh dosen, mahasiswa akan diberi waktu untuk menetapkan topik untuk thesis dan mengajukan nama pembimbing. Jika disetujui, maka dipersilahkan untuk mulai mengerjakannya.

Berdasarkan tools yang digunakan, ada empat kelompok sub-bidang ilmu untuk pengerjaan thesis, yaitu:
1. Statistika and Quality Improvement (termasuk Organisasi dan SDM)
2. Sistem Manufaktur
3. Simulasi dan Modelling (menggunakan OR)
4. Ekonomi dan Perbankan (termasuk strategi industri, marketing)

Penelitian harus “baru”, memberikan sumbangsih bagi keilmuan dengan menyelesaikan suatu masalah melalui cara yang belum pernah dilakukan sebelumnya.

SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [5]
Topik TI yang berhubungan dengan Marketing, Quality Management (balance score card) dll, oleh Ibu Erlinda – 12 September 2009 (11:45-12:30 WIB).

Recommendation from Bu Erlinda: Langkah awal membuat thesis dimulai dengan menggali topik-topik yang sudah dibahas di perguruan tinggi lain. Yang penting dimulai dengan identifikasi masalah (“Apakah akar masalahnya?”).

SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [6]
Topik TI yang berkaitan dengan Optimasi dan Pemodelan, oleh Pak Amar – 12 September 2009 (12:30-13:15 WIB).

Waktu kuliah diisi dengan tanya jawab, masing-masing mahasiswa diminta menyampaikan topik yang ingin diangkat dalam thesis. Ternyata ada banyak hal yang bisa digali dalam masalah optimasi di segala bidang industri jasa/manufaktur, terutama diarahkan menuju usaha meningkatkan income dengan membuat model.

SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [7]
Metode pembuatan dasar teori, pengumpulan data dan proses bimbingan, oleh Pak Dachyar – 12 September 2009 (14:45- 15:40 WIB).

Pak Dachyar menyampaikan bahwa referensi untuk penulisan thesis harus mengambil dari jurnal internasional.

Penelitian seharusnya dimulai setelah menemukan jurnal (dasar teori penulisan) yang mendukung dan sesuai dengan metodologi yang telah dipersiapkan.

Pembimbing harus disesuaikan dengan topik yang dipilih.

Data baru dikumpulkan setelah diketahui dengan persis mengenai teori yang akan digunakan agar tidak harus mengulang pengambilan data pada saat proses penulisan thesis sedang berjalan. Berdasarkan pengalaman, pengumpulan data biasanya bisa diselesaikan dalam waktu dua minggu.

SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [8]
Penjelasan mengenai prinsip-prinsip pengerjaan thesis berupa menggunakan modeling dan simulasi, oleh Pak Akhmad – 3 Oktober 2009 (11:00-12:00 WIB)

SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [9]
Multidimensional penulisan thesis dari tinjauan sistem Engineering, Modeling and Simulation Lab, oleh Omar Moeis – 3 Oktober 2009 (16:20-16:45 WIB)

Dalam proses penulisan karya ilmiah, ada perbedaan tujuan antara “simulasi” dengan “optimasi”:
OPTIMASI berfokus pada hasil kuantitatif
SIMULASI berfokus pada sistem behaviour

SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [10]
Penjelasan mengenai prinsip-prinsip pengerjaan thesis yang bertopik simulasi industri, oleh Pak Boy – 16 Oktober 2009 (20:30-21:00 WIB)

SEMINAR DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN [11]
Penerapan prinsip-prinsip statistik dalam pengerjaan thesis, oleh Bu Arian – 17 Oktober 2009 (8:00-8:40 WIB)dataclassification

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sourcesofdata

Strategi Industri [1] September 5, 2009

Posted by desrinda in Strategi Industri.
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Krisis ekonomi global yang terjadi di periode 2008-2009 menyadarkan banyak pelaku industri mengenai penting strategi untuk mempertahankan kelangsungan bisnis.

Strategic Management is set of managerial decisions and actions that determines the long-run performance of a corporation. (Wheelen & Hunger)

In turn, these strategic decisions are formulated into business policies that guide the various functional areas of the firm in completing and achieving the firm’s strategic goals.

Benefits:
– A clear sense of strategic vision for the firm.
– A sharper focus on what is strategically important.
– Improved understanding of a rapidly changing environment.

Simple questions of strategic management:
– Where is the organization now?
– What are the result of SWOT analysis?
– If no changes are made, where will be the organization? Are the answer acceptable?
– If the answer is not acceptable, what actions to be undertaken? What are the risks and payoffs included?

Globalization (the internationalization of markets and corporations) has changed modern corporations in doing business, especially applying economies of scale to achieve low cost e.g. Nike and Reebok manufacture their athletic shoes in Asia.

E-commerce (the use of internet to conduct business transactions) has been applied everywhere, mostly on B2B marketplace, example: Pertamina uses E-Reverse Auction.

Core competence (a bundle of skills and technologies that enables a company to provide a particular benefit to customers) should be clearly set.
e.g.
– Sony, product benefit = pocketability, core competence = miniaturization
– FedEx, product benefit = on time delivery, core competence = supply chain logistics

A learning organization skilled at creating, acquiring, transferring knowledge and at modifying its behavious to reflect new knowledge and insight.

Greatest management decisions that has changed things:
1950 = McNamara’s idea of the Diners Club Card
1952 = first Holiday Inn by the Wilson family
1959 = motorbike business overnight change by Honda
1980 = Ted Turner launched CNN, first 24-hours news network
1980 = Akito Morita developed Walkman without prior market research
1984 = Michael Dell decided to start selling PC and personalized computers

“The public does not know what is possible. We do.” Akito Morita

In class discussion of strategic’s case examples:
– Boeing vs Airbus (jumbo liner vs medium sized aeroplanes)
– Atari (pioneer for home video-game industry but then lost the market to Sony, XBox, Nintendo etc)

Analisa Multivariat [1] September 4, 2009

Posted by desrinda in Analisa Multivariat.
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Course Outline:
• Introduction
• Review of Basic Statistics
• Multiple Regression
• Manova
• Principal Component Analysis
• Factor Analysis
• Discriminant Analysis
• Logit Analysis
• Cluster Analysis
• Conjoint analysis
• Multidimensional scaling
• Correspondence Analysis

Prerequisites:
• Basic Statistics
• Marketing

Course Requirement and Grading:
• Problem sets/quizzes 15%
• Term Paper 25%
• Midterm Exam 30%
• Final Exam 30%

Reading Material:
• Hair, J.F./ B. Black, B. Babin, and R.E. Anderson Multivariate Data Analysis, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education Inc., New Jersey, 2006
• Dillon, W.R., and M. Goldstein. Multivariate Analysis: Methods andApplications, New York: Wiley, 1984.
• Johnson, R.A., and D.W. Wichern, Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis, Fifth Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002.

Multivariate Data Analysis
= all statistical methods that simultaneously analyze multiple measurements on each indlvidual or object under investigation.

Basic Concepts:
• The Variate
• Measurement scales (Nonmetric, Metric)
• Multivariate Measurement
• Measurement Error
• Types of Techniques

The variate is a linear combination of variables with empirically determined weights. Weights are determined to best achieve the objective of the specific multivariate technique.

In addressing measurement error, researchers evaluate two important characteristics of measurement:
• Validity =the degree to which a measure accurately represents what it is supposed to
• Reliability =the degree to which the observed variable measures the “true” value and is thus error free

Tidak ada entry baru selama 4 bulan terakhir ini… July 8, 2009

Posted by desrinda in Umum.
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Hampir empat bulan tidak menambah entry dalam blog ini, sebenarnya hanya karena tidak sempat upload. Bahan-bahan kuliah terakhir dari semester 2 lalu (April-Mei 2009) sudah ada beberapa yang disiapkan softcopy-nya, namun terlanjur lewat dan akhirnya nyaris males deh.

Sekarang saya sedang libur kuliah, baru masuk lagi semester 3 di awal September 2009. Ada beberapa teman yang tetap ke kampus, yaitu mereka yang mengambil semester pendek untuk mengulang kelas Ekonomi Teknik, setiap Sabtu 10:00 – 14:00 WIB (Juni-Juli 2009).

Btw perhaps nobody need this blog to be updated anyway?